Doug Van Dorn


This page will have links to various scholarly articles and books on Jesus (OT and NT), Giants and their heavenly parents--the Sons of God.

Here is a link to my page at

Sons of God

Historical Survey

Dictionary Entries

Journal Articles
Sons of God as "Heavenly Beings"

Sons of God as "Tyrants"

Sons of God as "Sethites"

"The Ancient Exegesis of Genesis 6:2, 4" - Robert C. Newman (Grace Theological Journal 5.1 (1984): 13-36. This is a great historical survey of the interpretation of the "sons of God." It demonstrates that the oldest view is the supernatural view).

"Sons of God" - Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
"Sons of the Gods" - Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible

Michael Heiser, "Deuteronomy 32:8 and the Sons of God," Bibliotheca Sacra 158, no. 629 (2001): 51–74. This has become the classic study of the Sons of God. Heiser demonstrates that the original phrase was "sons of God" and that these were viewed as heavenly beings).

Michael Heiser, "Deuteronomy 32:8 and the Sons of God" - (from his website. This is a little longer than the published version).

Willem A Van Gemeren, "The Sons of God in Genesis 6:1-4: An Example of Evangelical Demythologization?" - Westminster Theological Journal 43 (1981): 320-348. This article concludes that taking the sons of God as not being heavenly beings is a form of de-mythologization)

Ronald Hendel, "When the Sons of God Cavorted with the Daughters of Men," Understanding the Dead Sea Scrolls (New York: Vintage Books, 1993), 167-77.

Meredith G. Kline, "Divine Kingship and Genesis 6:1-4," Westminster Theological Journal 24.2 (1962): 187-204. Kline gives the classic defense of the sons of God as human kings. This is not a Sethite view).

David J. A. Clines, "The Significance of the 'Sons of God' Episode (Genesis 6.1-4) in the Context of the 'Primaeval History' (Genesis 1-11), " Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 13 (1979): 34-46.

John Murray, "Appendix A," Principles of Conduct, pp. 243-49. This PDF is missing one page at the moment, as they were not available on the Google Book preview).




“Biblical Views: Giants at Jericho” - Ronald S. Hendel (Biblical Archeology Review 35:02, Mar/Apr 2009).

"Golgotha on Mount Zion" - W. F. Birch, M.A., “ Palestine Exploration Fund: Quarterly Statement 1907), 140-47. Included in the PDF: Conrad Schick, “Hill of ‘Jeremiah’s Grotto,’ Called By General Gordon ‘Skull Hill,’” Palestine Exploration Fund: Quarterly Statement 1901 (London: Fund’s Office, 1901): 402-5, referenced by Birch is in this pdf.


"Nephilim" - Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible


"Rephaim" - Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary
"Rephaim" - Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible


"Nimrod Before and After the Bible" - K. vand der Toorn (Harvard Theological Review 83:1 (1990): 1-29).


"Reconsidering the Height of Goliath" - J. Daniel Hays (Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 48.4 (Dec 2005): 701-14. This paper argues that Goliath was 6 ft. 6 in.
"Goliath and the Exodus Giants: How Tall Were They?" - Clyde E. Billington (Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 50.3 (Sept 2007): 489-508. This article argues that Goliath was more like the traditional height of 9 ft. 9 in.

"The Height of Goliath: A Response To Clyde Billington" - J. Daniel Hays (Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 50.3 (Sept 2007): 508-516. This is a response to Billington).

Biblical Passages

Psalm 82

Cyrus Gordon, “אלהים (Elohim) in Its Reputed Meaning of Rulers, Judges,” Journal of Biblical Literature 54 (1935): 139–144.
Lowell Handy, “Sounds, Words and Meanings in Psalm 82,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 47 (1990), 51–66.
Michael S. Heiser, “You've Seen One Elohim, You've Seen Them All? A Critique of Mormonism's Use of Psalm 82," FARMS Review 19/1 (2007): 221–266.

Christ in the OT

Christ in the NT

The Angel of the LORD

Charles A. Gieschen, Angelomorphic Christology: Antecedents & Early Evidence (Boston: Brill, 1998). 


The Name

Carl Judson David, The Name and the Way of the LORD: Old Testament Themes, New Testament Christology. Found this from a "name" and "hypostasis" search.

Doug Van Dorn, "Covenant of Redemption," In Covenant Theology: A Reformed Baptist Primer (Erie, CO: Waters of Creation Pub., 2015).

The Logos/Memra/Word

Geerhardus Vos, “The Range of the Logos-Title in the Prologue to the Fourth Gospel,” The Princeton Theological Review XI, no. 1–4 (1913): 365-419.
Scott K. Oliphint, “Bavinck’s Realism, the Logos Principle, and Sola Scriptura,” Westminster Theological Journal 72, no. 2 (2010): 359-89.

G. H. Box, “The Idea of Intermediation in Jewish Theology. A Note on Memra and Shekinah,” The Jewish Quarterly Review 23:2 (Oct 1932): 103-119.

Son of Man/Lord

James A. Waddell, The Messiah: A Comparative Study of the Enochic Son of Man and the Pauline Kyrios (New York: T&T Clark International, 2011).



Alan Cooper, “Ps 24:7–10: Mythology and Exegesis,Journal of Biblical Literature 102 (1983): 37-60.

Divine Council and the Impassibility of God

Peter, Jude/2 Peter

Richard Bauckham's Word Biblical Commentary on Jude 6 and 2 Peter 2:4-5 (along with two appendices from Giants: Sons of the Gods, one on extrabiblical literature, one on Jude and 2 Peter).
J. Ramsey Michaels, "The Journey to Heaven: (3:18-22)," 1 Peter, vol. 49, Word Biblical Commentary (Dallas: Word, Incorporated, 1998), 194–222. (Michaels surveys the field of different views and is well acquainted with the ancient literature. I agree with most of his exegesis). 

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